Four Principles of Instruction:
- Increase comprehension: Make meaning clear through visuals, demonstrations, and other means.
- Increase student-to-student interaction: Engage students using English to accomplish academic tasks.
- Increase higher order thinking and the use of learning strategies: Explicitly teach thinking skills and learning strategies to develop English learners as effective, independent learners.
- Make connections to students' background knowledge: Explicitly plan and incorporate ways to engage students in thinking about and drawing fro their life experiences and prior knowledge.
What's Different About Teaching Reading to Students Learning English? (2007). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.